Saturday, 7 July 2018

Where did our oceans come from?

Without a doubt,we all know that earth was a molten rock before millions of years. Gradually it cooled to form the current earth. Now,75% of the earth is covered with water,which is one of the primary factor for supporting life on earth. But where did this water come from? Where did our oceans originate from?

One of the theory suggests that the water and entire ocean was formed as a result of bombardment of a large icy body,generally known as Cometary Nucleus. It isn't a complete comet,but the head of a comet. They must have collided with the newly formed baby earth. It is assumed that this comet head was attracted to earth due to its gravity,as a part of sweeping its orbit around Sun.

However,another theory suggests that,water was sourced down to earth itself and is never any alienated substance from a comet or other bodies. They are arguing that the same Protoplanetory debris which  caused earth to form,also must have water and icy crystals with them.

NB: There is a theory suggesting that life came from somewhere else and was not originated on this planet earth. There are suggestions that life came with the ice crystals in this cometary head and lived in the water on earth,later survived and evolution took place to get adapted to this planet.

What is a planet?

Sky watchers named planet as Planet,which means wanderers. They weren't starts which shines,but wanders like them seen around our view-able horizons.

Today we refer planets to the 8 different celestial bodies,which are categorically Endo-planets.

You might have known about removal of Pluto from the 9 planet system we earlier had.

International Astronomical Union or IAU defines what a planet must be.
1. It must be a celestial body orbiting around the sun.
2. It must have its own gravity to form into a spherical/round shape
3. It must have swept its surroundings,so that nothing else is sharing its orbit around sun.

Comets,Asteroids and Huge rocks are those with their own gravitational senses,but never occupied a round shape of their own.

There is a category called Dwarf Planets,which is orbiting around the sun,have a spherical/round shape but never sweeps other things off from its orbit.

Dwarf planets of the solar system include Pluto,Ceres,Eris,Makemake and Haumea.

Sunday, 1 July 2018

Will Apple seeds cause death?

Apple has black seeds which contain a chemical named Amygdalin.
Amygdalin when digested or crushed reacts to form Hydrogen cyanide.
This is the defensive mechanism of the seed to ensure no pests attacks the seed.

It doesn't mean apple is poisonous. But excessive consumption of apple seeds might cause heavy poisonous effect,including death.

There are cases around the globe where people have used this method to kill people. There are registered cases around the globe.

For a 80kg person to die ,she needs to consume 250+ apple seeds at a time.

The attached picture explains the number of seeds corresponding to weights to cause death.

NB: Swallowing some seeds while eating apple doesn't cause anything serious.

Tyndall effect in Mizoram

Tyndall effect is an effect seen when light gets scattered,while it is passing through a colloidal solution. Colloidal solution contains particles suspended through out it,which scatters the light.

Copper sulphate is a white powder. But when it is mixed with little drops of water it turns sky blue in colour. When we makes solution of copper sulphate, It is a colloidal solution.
Milk,Mayonnaise are some other examples.

The most important property of Tyndall effect is that it makes the light beam visible. Light collides with the colloid and reflection takes place,which makes the path visible,hence the beam.

Tyndall effect is the reason why we see yellow light beams in fog and smoke at night in front of vehicles.
Tyndall effect is the reason why we see tails of comets.
Tyndall effect is the reason why we can see light beams inside a dense forest.

The Murlen National park is situated at Mizoram,India. The thickness of the forest is generally compared with that of Amazon forest's parts in South America. Here only 1% of the sunlight on a heavy sunny day could penetrate the forest.

Tyndall effect seen in those forests will be a magnificent visual for our human eyes due to the thick darkness and cool moisture.

Germanium and India

Germanium is a metalloid or semiconductor. Atomic number is 32.
One of the most important property of Germanium is that it has the same crystalline structure similar to Diamond,yet not strong as a Diamond. Diamond is just Carbon.

CLEMEN WINKLER discovered Germanium in 1886. Remember, The first Indian struggle for independence from the British started only in 1857.
And only in 1885 Indian National Congress was established.
Which means Germanium is much older than independent India!

FYI: Zone refining is he method by which we refines pure germanium.